# A R programming

This appendix on R programming is a brief overview of important programming constructs and concepts in R that are used in the book. For a detailed and much more extensive coverage of R as a programming language the reader is referred to the book Advanced R.

Depending on your background, the appendix can serve different purposes. If you already have experience with programming in R, this appendix can serve as a brush up on some basic aspects of the R language that are used throughout the book. If you have experience with programming in other languages than R, it can serve as an introduction to typical R programming techniques, where some may differ from what you know from other languages. If you have little prior experience with programming, this appendix can teach you the most important things for getting started with the book, but you are encouraged to follow up with additional and more detailed material like Advanced R.

For everybody, this appendix covers topics of greatest relevance for understanding how to implement correct and efficient numerical algorithms used in statistics. These topics include

• data types, comparisons and numerical precision
• functions and vectorized computations
• environments and function factories
• performance assessment and improvement
• S3 objects and methods

Several other topics of importance for R programming more broadly, such as S4 and R6 objects, expressions, and data wrangling, are not used much in the book and are not covered in any detail in this appendix.

## A.1 Data structures

The fundamental data structure in R is a vector. Even variables that look and behave like single numbers are vectors of length one. Vectors come in two flavors: atomic vectors and lists.

An atomic vector is an indexed collection of data elements that are all of the same type, e.g.,

• integers
• floating point numbers
• logical values
• character strings

A list is an indexed collection of elements without any type restrictions on the individual elements. An element in a list can, for instance, be a list itself.

### A.1.1 Atomic vectors

You can construct a vector in R by simply typing in its elements, e.g.,

first_vector <- c(1, 2, 3)  # Note the 'c'
first_vector
## [1] 1 2 3

The constructed vector contains the numbers 1, 2 and 3. We use the classical assignment operator <- throughout, but R supports using the equal sign, =, as the assignment operator if you prefer. The c() used on the right hand side of the assignment is short for combine (or concatenate), and it is also used if you combine two vectors into one.

second_vector <- c(4, 5, 6)
c(first_vector, second_vector)  # Combining two vectors
## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6

There are several convenient techniques in R for constructing vectors of various regular nature, e.g., sequences. The following example shows how to construct a vector containing the integers from 1 to 10 using the colon operator. The type of the resulting vector is integer indicating that the elements of the vector are stored as integers.

integer_vector <- 1:10
integer_vector
##  [1]  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10
typeof(integer_vector)  # 'typeof' reveals the internal storage mode
## [1] "integer"

We can access the individual elements as well as subsets of a vector by indices using square brackets.

integer_vector[3]
## [1] 3
integer_vector[first_vector]  # The first three elements
## [1] 1 2 3

The function seq generalizes the colon operator as a way to generate regular sequences. The following example shows how to generate a sequence, double_vector, from 0.1 to 1.0 with increments of size 0.1. The type of the resulting vector is double, which indicates that the elements of double_vector are stored as doubles. That is, the numbers are stored as floating point numbers using 64 bits of storage with a precision of just about 16 digits.

double_vector <- seq(0.1, 1, by = 0.1)
double_vector
##  [1] 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
typeof(double_vector)
## [1] "double"

Integers are often stored as or coerced into doubles automatically. The vector
first_vector appears to be an integer vector, but it is actually of type double.

typeof(first_vector)
## [1] "double"

In R, numerical data of either type integer or double is collectively referred to as numerics and have mode (and class) numeric. This may be confusing, in particular because “numeric” is used also as pseudonym of the type double, but it is rarely a practical problem. Doubles can be mixed with integers in any computation, in which case the integers are automatically coerced to doubles. A vector of numbers is therefore often said to by a numeric vector, irrespective of whether the type is integer or double. Moreover, the function is.numeric() tests if a vector is a numeric vector, and it returns TRUE for vectors of type either double or integer.

It is possible to insist that integers are actually stored as integers by appending L (capital l) to each integer, e.g.,

typeof(c(1L, 2L, 3L))
## [1] "integer"

Apparent integers are usually—and silently—converted into doubles if they are not explicitly marked as integers by L. One exception is when sequences are generated using the colon operator with the endpoints being integers. The result will then be a vector of type integer as was shown above with 1:10.

Vectors of any length can be created by the generic function vector(), or by type specific functions such as numeric() that creates vectors of type double.

vector("numeric", length = 10) 
##  [1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
numeric(10)
##  [1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Both vectors above are of type double and of length 10 and initialized with all elements being 0.

A logical vector is another example of a useful atomic vector. The default type of a vector created by vector() is logical, with all elements being FALSE.

vector(length = 10)
##  [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE

Logical vectors are encountered when we compare the elements of one vector to another vector or to a number.

logical_vector <- integer_vector > 4
logical_vector
##  [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE  TRUE
typeof(logical_vector)
## [1] "logical"

Note how the comparison above is vectorized, that is, each element in the vector integer_vector is compared to the number 4 and the result is a vector of logical values.

While a logical vector has its own type and is stored efficiently as such, it behaves in many ways as a numeric vector with FALSE equivalent to 0 and TRUE equivalent to 1. If we want to compute the relative frequency of elements in integer_vector that are (strictly) larger than 4, say, we can simply take the mean of logical_vector.

mean(logical_vector)
## [1] 0.6

Computing the mean of a logical vector works as if the logical values are coerced into zeros and ones before the mean is computed.

A final example of an atomic vector is a character vector. In this example, the vector is combined from 6 individual strings to form a vector of length 6. Combining strings into a vector does not paste the strings together—it forms a vector, whose elements are the individual strings.

character_vector <- c("A", "vector", "of", "length", 6, ".")
character_vector
## [1] "A"      "vector" "of"     "length" "6"      "."
typeof(character_vector)
## [1] "character"

The type of the vector is character. Elements of a vector of type character are strings. Note how the numeric value 6 in the construction of the vector was automatically coerced into the string "6".

It is possible to paste together the strings in a character vector.

# Now a character vector of length 1
paste(character_vector, collapse = " ")  
## [1] "A vector of length 6 ."

It is likewise possible to split a string according to a pattern. For instance into its individual characters.

# Split the string "vector" into characters
strsplit(character_vector[2], split = "")  
## [[1]]
## [1] "v" "e" "c" "t" "o" "r"

Various additional string operations are available—see ?character for more information.

In summary, atomic vectors are the primitive data structures used in R, with elements being accessible via indices (random access). Typical vectors contain numbers, logical values or strings. There is no declarations of data types—they are inferred from data or computations. This is a flexible type system with many operations in R silently coercing elements in a vector from one type to another.

### A.1.2 Comparisons and numerical precision

We can compare vectors using the equality operator ==, which compares two vectors element-by-element.

double_vector[2:3] == c(0.2, 0.3)
## [1]  TRUE FALSE

The result of the comparison above is a vector of length 2 containing the logical values TRUE FALSE. If we recall the numbers contained in double_vector the result might be surprising at first sight.

double_vector[2:3]
## [1] 0.2 0.3

The vector double_vector[2:3] appears to be equal to c(0.2, 0.3). The difference shows up if we increase the number of printed digits from the default (which is 7) to 20.

c(0.2, 0.3)
## [1] 0.2000000000000000111 0.2999999999999999889
double_vector[2:3]
## [1] 0.20000000000000001110 0.30000000000000004441

The 0.3 produced by seq is computed as 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1, while the 0.3 in the vector c(0.2, 0.3) is converted directly into a double precision number. The difference arises because neither 0.1 nor 0.3 are exactly representable in the binary numeral system, and the arithmetic operations induce rounding errors. The function numToBits can reveal the exact difference in the three least significant bits.

numToBits(0.3)[1:3]  # The three least significant bits 
## [1] 01 01 00
numToBits(0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1)[1:3] 
## [1] 00 00 01

Differences in the least significant bits are tolerable when we do numerical computations but can be a nuisance for equality testing. When comparing vectors containing doubles we are therefore often interested in testing for approximate equality instead as illustrated by the following example.

test_vector <- c(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0)
all.equal(double_vector, test_vector)
## [1] TRUE

The function all.equal() has a tolerance argument controlling if numerical differences will be regarded as actual differences. Another way of comparing numerical vectors is by computing the range of their difference

range(double_vector - test_vector)
## [1] 0.000000e+00 1.110223e-16

This shows the largest positive and negative difference. Usually, the sizes of the differences should be assessed relative to the magnitudes of the numbers compared. For numbers approximately of magnitude 1, differences of the order $$2^{-52} \approx 2.22 \times 10^{-16}$$ (the “machine epsilon”) can safely be regarded as rounding errors. The default (relative) tolerance of all.equal() is the more permissive number $$\sqrt{2^{-53}} \approx 1.5 \times 10^{-8}$$. This number is an ad hoc but commonly used tolerance. See ?all.equal for details.

### A.1.3 Lists

Recall that strsplit() with argument split = "" splits a string into its individual characters. In fact, strsplit() returns a list with one entry for each string in its first argument.

char_list <- strsplit(character_vector[2:4], split = "")
char_list
## [[1]]
## [1] "v" "e" "c" "t" "o" "r"
##
## [[2]]
## [1] "o" "f"
##
## [[3]]
## [1] "l" "e" "n" "g" "t" "h"

The list char_list has length 3, with the first entry being a character vector of length 6, the second entry a character vector of length 2 and the third entry a character vector of length 6. A list just as a vector an indexed collection of data entries, but a characteristic feature of a list is that the different entries need not be of the same size or even the same type. In fact, each entry of a list can be anything—even another list.

mixed_list <- list(c(1, 2), c(TRUE, FALSE))
combined_list <- list(mixed_list, char_list)
combined_list
## [[1]]
## [[1]][[1]]
## [1] 1 2
##
## [[1]][[2]]
## [1]  TRUE FALSE
##
##
## [[2]]
## [[2]][[1]]
## [1] "v" "e" "c" "t" "o" "r"
##
## [[2]][[2]]
## [1] "o" "f"
##
## [[2]][[3]]
## [1] "l" "e" "n" "g" "t" "h"

The list combined_list contains two lists, with the first list containing a numeric and a logical vector, and with the second list containing character vectors.

The different entries of a list can be accessed using indices in two different ways—using either single brackets [] or double brackets [[]].

mixed_list[2]
## [[1]]
## [1]  TRUE FALSE
mixed_list[[2]]
## [1]  TRUE FALSE

Using only a single bracket will return a list containing the indexed elements of the full list, while the double bracket with a single index will return the element in the list with that index. The following demonstrates how to extract a specific entry in one of the vectors in the combined list.

combined_list[[2]][[1]][3] # Why does this return "c"?
## [1] "c"

Entries of atomic vectors as well as lists can be named, and entries can be accessed via their name instead of an index. This may occasionally be useful for atomic vectors but is even more useful when working with lists. We reconstruct the combined list but with some descriptive names of its two entries.

combined_list <- list(mixed_bag = mixed_list, chars = char_list)

We can then extract an entry of a list by its name—either via double brackets or via the $ operator. combined_list[["mixed_bag"]] ## [[1]] ## [1] 1 2 ## ## [[2]] ## [1] TRUE FALSE combined_list$chars
## [[1]]
## [1] "v" "e" "c" "t" "o" "r"
##
## [[2]]
## [1] "o" "f"
##
## [[3]]
## [1] "l" "e" "n" "g" "t" "h"

One benefit of using names over numerical indices is that we do not need to keep track on the precise location of an entry within a list. This can make the code easier to read for humans, and code that uses names is robust to changes in the implementation of the precise location of the entry in the list.

The primary use of lists in this book is as a data structure for storing a small set of atomic vectors. We often need such a data structure when we write a function that needs to return more than just a single atomic vector. Thus lists are used as containers for function return values that are more complex than an atomic vector.

Lists can also be used as associative arrays that store key-value pairs, and where we can look up the value using the key. The key can then be of type character while the value can be anything. The lookup time is, however, linear in the length of the list. This can become a computational bottleneck for large lists, in which case it might be better to implement the associative array using environments. Environments can store key-value pairs just as lists, but they support faster lookup via a hash table, see Section A.2.2. They do, on the other hand, not support lookup via indices.

### A.1.4 Other data structures

In addition to atomic vectors and lists any R programmer should know about the following three data structures:

• Factors
• Data frames
• Matrices and arrays

A factor is a special type of vector, whose entries are all from a fixed set of values (represented as strings) known as the factor levels. It is implemented as an integer vector with an attribute containing the factor levels—with the integers acting as pointers to the actual values stored in the attribute.

high_low <- factor(c("high", "low", "low", "low", "high", "high"))
high_low
## [1] high low  low  low  high high
## Levels: high low
typeof(high_low)
## [1] "integer"

The factor above is initialized by a character vector, which is then converted into a factor. If the set of levels is small, a factor is more memory efficient than a naive implementation of a character vector. However, R actually stores character vectors via references to unique strings in a global string pool, so memory efficiency is not an argument for using a factor. Moreover, certain operations, such as concatenation, are more cumbersome for factors than for character vectors, and there is thus no reason to use factors unless some of their unique features are needed.

The main purpose of a factor is that it includes a specification of an ordering of the levels, which can differ from the alphabetic ordering. A number of R functions require factors, and in most cases it is because an ordering of the levels is needed. Factors should thus be used whenever we need the ordering or rely on other R functions that require us to use factors.

A data frame is R’s data structure for storing and handling tabular data. You can think of a data frame as a 2-dimensional table with rows and columns. All columns must be of the same length, and all entries in a single column are of the same type. A column is in practice often an atomic vector, but it does not need to.

combined_df <- data.frame(
doubles = double_vector,
integers = integer_vector,
logicals = logical_vector
)
combined_df
##    doubles integers logicals
## 1      0.1        1    FALSE
## 2      0.2        2    FALSE
## 3      0.3        3    FALSE
## 4      0.4        4    FALSE
## 5      0.5        5     TRUE
## 6      0.6        6     TRUE
## 7      0.7        7     TRUE
## 8      0.8        8     TRUE
## 9      0.9        9     TRUE
## 10     1.0       10     TRUE

The data frame constructed above has 10 rows and 3 columns. We can extract individual entries, rows, columns or rectangular parts of a data frame via brackets and indices.

combined_df[2, 2]
## [1] 2
# Second row
combined_df[2, ]      
##   doubles integers logicals
## 2     0.2        2    FALSE
# Second column
combined_df[, 2]      
##  [1]  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10
# Second and third row of columns two and three
combined_df[2:3, 2:3] 
##   integers logicals
## 2        2    FALSE
## 3        3    FALSE

The columns of a data frame have names, and we can extract a column by name in the same way as we can extract an entry in a list by name.

combined_df$logicals ## [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE A data frame is, in fact, implemented as a list with each entry of the list storing one column of the data frame. It means that you can do everything with a data frame that you can do with a list. Data frames play a very central role whenever we do data analysis or work with data in general—which is what statistics is ultimately about in practice. That aspect of statistics is, however, not very central to this book, and data frames only appear occasionally and are never part of the numerical algorithms that are otherwise in focus. The last data structure covered in this section is arrays. A $$k$$-dimensional array can be thought of as a $$k$$-dimensional box of data, where we can access the entries of the box using $$k$$ indices. If the dimensions of the array are $$n_1, n_2, \ldots, n_k$$ the array is, in fact, just a length $$n_1 n_2 \cdots n_k$$ vector with additional dimensionality attributes. A matrix of dimensions $$n_1$$ and $$n_2$$ is a 2-dimensional array with $$n_1$$ rows and $$n_2$$ columns. We can access the entries of an array or a matrix using brackets with one index for each dimension of the array. M <- matrix(c(1, 2, 3, 4), nrow = 2, ncol = 2) M ## [,1] [,2] ## [1,] 1 3 ## [2,] 2 4 M[1, 2] ## [1] 3 attributes(M) ##$dim
## [1] 2 2

A matrix and a data frame appear similar. Both can be thought of as 2-dimensional arrays of data—but the similarity is superficial. We can extract entries and rectangular parts of matrices using brackets and indices, just as for data frames, but data frames allow for different data types in the different columns, and matrices do not. In fact, the intended usages of matrices and data frames are mostly different.

In contrast to data frames, matrices are used a lot in this book. For once, because a range of efficient numerical linear algebra algorithms are available for matrices and vectors, and many statistical computations can be reduced to numerical linear algebra.

## A.2 Functions

When you write an R script and source it, the different R expressions in the script are evaluated sequentially. Intermediate results may be stored in variables and used further down in the script. It may not be obvious, but all the expressions in the script are, in fact, function calls. Your script relies on functions implemented in either core R packages or in other installed packages.

It is possible to use R as a scripting language without ever writing your own functions, but writing new R functions is how you extend the language, and it is how you modularize and reuse your code in an efficient way. As a first example, we implement the Gaussian kernel with bandwidth $$h$$ (see also Section 2.2). The mathematical expression for this function is

$K_h(x) = \frac{1}{h \sqrt{2 \pi}} e^{- \frac{x^2}{2h^2}},$

which we usually think of as a collection of functions $$K_h : \mathbb{R} \to [0,\infty)$$ parametrized by $$h > 0$$. Though $$x$$ and $$h$$ in this way play different roles, they are treated equivalently in the implementation below, where they are both arguments to the R function. We call the implemented function gauss() to remind us that this is the Gaussian kernel.

gauss <- function(x, h = 1) {
exp(- x^2 / (2 * h^2)) / (h * sqrt(2 * pi))
}

The body of the function is the R expression

exp(- x^2 / (2 * h^2)) / (h * sqrt(2 * pi))

When the function is called with specific numeric values of its two formal arguments x and h, the body is evaluated with the formal arguments replaced by their values. The value of the (last) evaluated expression in the body is returned by the function. The bandwidth argument h is given a default value 1, so if that argument is not specified when the function is called, it gets the value 1.

The Gaussian kernel with bandwidth $$h$$ equals the density for the Gaussian distribution with mean $$0$$ and standard deviation $$h$$. Thus we can compare gauss() with dnorm() in R that computes the Gaussian density.

c(gauss(1), dnorm(1))
## [1] 0.2419707 0.2419707
# Bandwidth changed to 0.1
c(gauss(0.1, 0.1), dnorm(0.1, sd = 0.1))  
## [1] 2.419707 2.419707

For those two cases the functions appear to compute the same (at least, up to the printed precision).

Note how the formal argument sd is given the value 0.1 in the second call of dnorm(). The argument sd is, in fact, the third argument of dnorm(), but we do not need to specify the second, as in dnorm(0.1, 0, 0.1), to specify the third. We can use its name instead, in which case the second argument in dnorm() gets its default value 0.

There are several alternative ways to implement the Gaussian kernel that illustrate how functions can be written in R.

# A one-liner without curly brackets
gauss_one_liner <- function(x, h = 1)
exp(- x^2 / (2 * h^2)) / (h * sqrt(2 * pi))

# A stepwise implementation computing the exponent first
gauss_step <- function(x, h = 1) {
exponent <- (x / h)^2 / 2
exp(- exponent) / (h * sqrt(2 * pi))
}

# A stepwise implementation with an explicit return statement
gauss_step_return <- function(x, h = 1) {
exponent <- (x / h)^2 / 2
value <- exp(- exponent) / (h * sqrt(2 * pi))
return(value)
}

The following small test shows two cases where all implementations compute the same.

c(gauss(1), gauss_one_liner(1), gauss_step(1), gauss_step_return(1))
## [1] 0.2419707 0.2419707 0.2419707 0.2419707
c(
gauss(0.1, 0.1),
gauss_one_liner(0.1, 0.1),
gauss_step(0.1, 0.1),
gauss_step_return(0.1, 0.1)
)
## [1] 2.419707 2.419707 2.419707 2.419707

A function should always be tested. A test is a comparison of the return values of the function with the expected values for some specific arguments. An expected value can either be computed by hand or by another implementation— as in the comparisons of gauss() and dnorm(). Such tests cannot prove that the implementation is correct, but discrepancies can help you to catch and correct bugs. Remember that when testing numerical computations that use floating point numbers we cannot expect exact equality. Thus tests should reveal if return values are within an acceptable tolerance of the expected results.

Larger pieces of software—such as an entire R package—should include a number of tests of each function it implements. This is known as unit testing (each unit, that is, each function, is tested), and there are packages supporting the systematic development of unit tests for R package development. A comprehensive set of unit tests also helps when functions are rewritten to, e.g., improve performance or extend functionality. If the rewritten function passes all tests, chances are that we did not break anything by rewriting the function.

It is good practice to write functions that do one well defined computation and to keep the body of a function relatively small. Then it is easier to reason about what the function does and it is easier to comprehensively test it. Complex behavior is achieved by composing small and well tested functions.

The overall aspects to writing an R function can be summarized as follows:

• A function has a name, it takes a number of arguments (possibly zero), and when called it evaluates its body and returns a value.
• The body is enclosed by curly brackets {}, which may be left out if the body is only one line.
• The function returns the value of the last expression in the body except when the body contains an explicit return statement.
• Formal arguments can be given default values when the function is implemented, and arguments can be passed to the function by position as well as by name.
• Functions should do a single well defined computation and be well tested.

### A.2.1 Vectorization

In Section A.1 it was shown how comparison operators work in a vectorized way. In R, comparing a vector to another vector or a number leads to element-by-element comparisons with a logical vector as the result. This is one example of how many operations and function evaluations in R are natively vectorized, which means that when the function is evaluated with a vector argument the function body is effectively evaluated for each entry in the vector.

The gauss() function is another example of a function that automatically works as a vectorized function.

gauss(c(1, 0.1), c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2419707 2.4197072

It works as expected with vector arguments because all the functions in the body of gauss() are vectorized, that is, the arithmetic operators are vectorized, squaring is vectorized and the exponential function is vectorized.

It is good practice to write R programs that use vectorized computations whenever possible. The alternative is an explicit loop, which can be much slower. Several examples in the book illustrate the computational benefits of vectorized implementations. It may, however, not always be obvious how to implement a function so that it is correctly vectorized in all its arguments.

Suppose we want to implement the following function

$\overline{f}_h(x) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n K_h(x - x_i)$

for a dataset $$x_1, \ldots, x_n$$ and with $$K_h$$ the Gaussian kernel. This is the Gaussian kernel density estimator considered in Section 2.4. A straight forward implementation is

xs <- rnorm(10)  # A dataset with 10 observations
f_bar <- function(x, h)
mean(gauss(x - xs, h))

This implementation works correctly when x and h are single numbers but when, e.g., x = c(0, 1) is a vector, the function does not return a vector but a number unrelated to $$\overline{f}_h(0)$$ and $$\overline{f}_h(1)$$

c(f_bar(0, 1), f_bar(1, 1))
## [1] 0.2413924 0.2052633
f_bar(c(0, 1), 1)  # Computation is not vectorized, what happened?
## [1] 0.2363991

We leave it as an exercise for the reader to figure out which computation is actually carried out when f_bar(c(0, 1), 1) is evaluated. A quick fix to make any function correctly vectorized is the following explicit vectorization.

f_bar_vec <- Vectorize(f_bar)

The R function Vectorize() takes a function as argument and returns a vectorized version of it. That is, f_bar_vec() can be applied to a vector, which results in applying f_bar() to each element of the vector. We test that f_bar_vec() works correctly—both when the first and the second argument is a vector.

f_bar_vec(c(0, 1), 1)
## [1] 0.2413924 0.2052633
# Same result if we vectorize-by-hand
c(f_bar(0, 1), f_bar(1, 1)) 
## [1] 0.2413924 0.2052633
f_bar_vec(1, c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2052633 0.2785974
# Same result if we vectorize-by-hand
c(f_bar(1, 1), f_bar(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2052633 0.2785974

The function Vectorize() is an example of a function operator, which is a function that takes a function as argument and returns a function. The function Vectorize() basically wraps the computations of its argument function into a loop, which applies the function to each element in the vector argument(s). For prototyping and quick implementations it can be very convenient, but it is not a shortcut to efficient vectorized computations.

Vectorize() is used in Section 2.4 to implement $$\overline{f}_h$$ based on dnorm(). The purpose of that implementation is to be able to compute $$\overline{f}_h(x)$$ for arbitrary $$x$$ in a vectorized way. This is needed when the function is plotted using curve() and in the likelihood computations of that section. The implementations in Section 2.2.1 differ by computing and returning

$\overline{f}_h(\tilde{x}_1), \ldots, \overline{f}_h(\tilde{x}_m)$

for an equidistant grid $$\tilde{x}_1, \ldots, \tilde{x}_m$$. That is, those implementations return the evaluations of $$\overline{f}_h$$ in the grid and not the function $$\overline{f}_h$$ itself.

### A.2.2 Environments

Recall that in the implementation of f_bar() above, the body made use of the variable xs, which is neither an argument to the function nor a variable defined within the body. It may appear obvious that xs is supposed to refer to the short data vector created just before the function implementation but outside of the function. How does R know that?

Whenever the body of f_bar() is evaluated, R needs a procedure for looking up the variable xs that appears in its body. Two possible procedures are:

• The variable is looked up as a local variable from wherever f_bar() is called.
• The variable is looked up as a local variable from wherever f_bar() is defined.

To the user that calls f_bar() it might appear simpler if xs were looked up from where the function is called. To the programmer that implements f_bar() such a procedure will, however, make reasoning about the behavior of f_bar() extremely difficult. The function f_bar() could be called from anywhere or within any other function—even within a function that itself has a variable called xs. So this is not how R works. Whenever a variable is needed, and when it is not an argument to or defined within the body of a function, the variable is looked up in the enclosing environment of current evaluation environment. For computations in the body of a function, the enclosing environment is effectively the place where the function was defined.

environment(f_bar)
## <environment: R_GlobalEnv>

The function environment() returns the enclosing environment of f_bar(), which in this case has a name and is R’s global environment—the place you start in whenever you open R.

An environment is the technical term for a well defined “place” containing a collection of objects. When we write a computer program, environments constitute organizational components that allow different objects to have the same name—as long as they belong to different environments. When learning R we often start out by always implementing functions within the global environment and then we call functions from the global environment as well. For that reason it is easy to mistakenly believe that variables are looked up in the calling environment when, in fact, they are not. Or we might believe, equally wrongly, that variables are always looked up in the global environment. As described above, variables are, in fact, looked up in the enclosing environment of the function, which just happens to be the global environment if the function was implemented in the global environment.

It is one thing to know the environment where a variable is looked up and another to know the value of the variable. The following example demonstrates that it is perfectly possible to change xs in the global environment between calls of f_bar(), which will lead to different results.

f_bar(1, 1)
## [1] 0.2052633
xs <- rnorm(10)
f_bar(1, 1)
## [1] 0.1961036

Such behavior—that two calls of the same function with identical arguments give different results—is often frowned upon, because it makes it difficult to reason about what the function will do. When implementing a function in R it is good practice to not rely on global variables like xs defined in the global environment.

It is possible to construct and manipulate environments and, for instance, change the enclosing environment of a function.

environment(f_bar) <- new.env()
environment(f_bar)
## <environment: 0x2a04977c0>

The new environment is empty and has some obscure hexadecimal address. Since it does not contain xs (yet) it is a good exercise to think about what will happen if we call f_bar(1, 1) now? We leave the exercise to the reader and populate the new environment with xs, test that f_bar(1, 1) and then we change xs again in the global environment.

environment(f_bar)$xs <- xs f_bar(1, 1) ## [1] 0.1961036 xs <- rnorm(10) f_bar(1, 1) ## [1] 0.1961036 Now f_bar() does not depend on the value of the global variable xs anymore. It depends instead on its more private version of xs in its own enclosing environment. In Section A.2.3 we will systematize the construction of functions having a private enclosing environment via function factories. This is a good way of bundling a function with additional data without relying on global variables. The infrastructure of R also relies heavily on environments—it is environments that control how anything is found, variables as well as functions. Environments are, for instance, used to implement namespaces of packages that make it possible to load many packages without substantial conflicts due to functions having the same name in several packages. The stats namespace is an example of the environment containing all the functions implemented in the stats package. asNamespace("stats") ## <environment: namespace:stats> Despite the use of namespaces it happens occasionally that a function from one package is masked by a function from another package. The package dplyr masks, among other functions, the stats function filter(). If this happens we could retrieve the function from the stats package’s namespace via asNamespace("stats")$filter(), but the more convenient syntax for getting a specific function from a namespace is stats::filter(). We sometimes use the double colon operator, ::, even when calling a function that is not masked. We do so when the function is not implemented in a core R package to emphasize which package actually implements the function—as a service to the reader.

As demonstrated in this section, environments are everywhere present when defining and calling functions and looking up variables. Moreover, if you need a hashed associative array, environments can do that for you, and they can thus work as a data structure alongside lists. It is, however, fairly uncommon to write R code as above that explicitly creates and assigns new environments let alone move data around between different environments. Most R programmers therefore rarely manipulate environments in your own code, but it is important to understand environments to be able to understand how R works and to reason correctly about how R functions look up other R functions and variables.

### A.2.3 Function factories

The function Vectorize() introduced in Section A.2.1 is an example of a function that returns a function. It is a general feature of the R programming language that functions are just another data structure, which can be defined and returned from within other functions. We can exploit this to write constructor functions, whose purposes are
to construct other functions with private enclosing environments. We will refer to such a constructor function as a function factory. To illustrate the idea we write a function factory that takes a dataset as argument and returns the kernel density estimator as a function.

gauss_kernel_factory <- function(xs) {
force(xs) # See explanation of this line below
f_bar <- function(x, h)
mean(gauss(x - xs, h))
Vectorize(f_bar)
}

The function factory gauss_factory() defines the function f_bar() in its body, which depends on the variable xs, and then returns a vectorized version of f_bar(). The first line, force(xs), ensures that the value of the argument xs is computed and stored when gauss_kernel_factory() is called. When a function is called in R, its arguments are evaluated according to a mechanism called lazy evaluation, which means that they are not evaluated before they are actually needed. In the function factory above, xs is not needed before the returned function is called, and unless we force evaluation of xs we could be in for a surprise. The value of xs could then change between the call of gauss_kernel_factory() and before its first use, which is not desirable. Inserting the line force(xs) explicates that we bypass the lazy evaluation to ensure that xs is what it was when gauss_kernel_factory() was called.

Calling gauss_kernel_factory() with a specific data vector as argument will construct an f_bar() for that data vector. We can compare with the previously implemented vectorized f_bar_vec(), which relies on the global variable xs.

f_bar <- gauss_kernel_factory(xs)
f_bar(c(1, 0.1), c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2493231 0.3344933
f_bar_vec(c(1, 0.1), c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2493231 0.3344933

Since the global xs and the local xs in the environment of f_bar() are identical, we get the same above whether we call f_bar() or f_bar_vec(). Changing the value of the global variable will not affect f_bar(), since it contains a private copy of the data in its enclosing environment, while it does affect f_bar_vec().

xs <- rnorm(10)
f_bar(c(1, 0.1), c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 0.2493231 0.3344933
f_bar_vec(c(1, 0.1), c(1, 0.1))
## [1] 2.458330e-01 2.171648e-05

The function factory gauss_kernel_factory() illustrates a generally useful idea in computational statistics. Oftentimes an R function will need both a dataset and a number of additional arguments, but in a specific application the dataset is fixed while the other arguments change. A kernel density estimator is a prototypical example, while the likelihood function is another important example. Alternatives to using a function factory is to either rely on a global variable containing the data or to include data as an argument to the function. The former is not recommended, and the latter makes the code more cluttered and can be less efficient. Instead we can write a function factory that takes the dataset as argument and returns a function of the other arguments. The function factory can then include any preprocessing and transformations of the data that might be needed, and these computations will only be carried out once when the function factory is called.

A different usage of function factories is as a way to construct a cache for the function that the factory returns. If a function has a private enclosing environment we can safely use it to store values computed in one function call so that they can be retrieved in a subsequent call. We will illustrate caching by solving an efficiency problem in R when random numbers are generated sequentially.

Section 4.3.1 gives an implementation of a rejection sampler for the von Mises distribution called vMsim_loop(), which relies on sequential generation of two uniformly distributed random variables within a loop. In each iteration there is a call of runif(1), which generates a single number from the uniform distribution on $$(0,1)$$. As discussed in that section, this is slow. It is much more efficient to call runif(1000) once than to call runif(1) a thousand times, but the challenge is that in the rejection sampler we do not know upfront how many uniform variables we need.

We solve this problem by implementing a function factory that returns a function, from which we can extract random numbers sequentially, but where the random number generator is called in a vectorized way and where the results are stored in the function’s enclosing environment, which then works as a cache.

runif_stream <- function(m, min = 0, max = 1) {
cache <- runif(m, min, max)
j <- 0
function() {
j <<- j + 1
if(j > m) {
cache <<- runif(m, min, max)
j <<- 1
}
cache[j]
}
}

The function factory above first initializes the cache to contain m samples from the uniform distribution. It then returns a function for extracting random numbers sequentially, which contains the cached samples in its enclosing environment. The function generates a new vector of random variables whenever the entire cache has been used. Note the use of the double headed assignment operator <<-, which assigns to variables in the enclosing environment of the function. Such assignments should usually only be done when the enclosing environment is private to the function, e.g., when the function is constructed by a function factory.

We will refer to the function returned by runif_stream() as a stream of uniform random numbers, and we run a small test to check that a stream generates samples from the uniform distribution in exactly the same way as if we generate them sequentially using runif(1).

set.seed(3012)
replicate(10, runif(1))
##  [1] 0.6905038 0.0623788 0.3614994 0.8189438 0.4347827 0.1792651 0.4446953
##  [8] 0.1601098 0.9025899 0.0501465
# Reset the seed and construct the stream with a cache of size 5
set.seed(3012)
runif_next <- runif_stream(5)
# The stream generates the same values
replicate(10, runif_next())
##  [1] 0.6905038 0.0623788 0.3614994 0.8189438 0.4347827 0.1792651 0.4446953
##  [8] 0.1601098 0.9025899 0.0501465

It appears that the stream performs correctly, but it remains unclear if there is any point to using the stream. The next section will explore how to measure run time and memory usage of small pieces of R code, which can be used for comparisons of different implementations.

## A.3 Performance

Whenever we evaluate an R function it carries out some computations, which take a certain amount of time and require a certain amount of memory. The efficiency of an implementation is often assessed by its run time and memory usage, and we need tools to be able to measure these quantities.

Ideally an implementation should be both fast and use as little memory as possible. There is, however, a tradeoff between time and memory consumption in the sense that we may be able to reduce run time of an implementation at the price of increasing its memory usage or vice versa. It can be complicated to fully understand this tradeoff in practice, and it can also be problem specific whether memory usage or run time is the most critical quantity to minimize. In this section we focus on how to measure these quantities in practice when we use R.

We will use the package bench, which contains several useful functions for high resolution measurements of time and for measuring memory usage of R computations. To measure memory usage, R needs to be compiled to support memory profiling, which is currently the case for the binary distributions for macOS and Windows.

The example below uses the mark() function from the bench package to collect benchmark information on using either runif(1) or a uniform stream in a loop.

bench::mark(
runif = for(i in 1:10000) runif(1),
stream = {
runif_next <- runif_stream(1000)
for(i in 1:10000) runif_next()
},
check = FALSE,     # See explanation below
filter_gc = FALSE  # See explanation below
)
## # A tibble: 2 × 6
##   expression      min   median itr/sec mem_alloc gc/sec
##   <bch:expr> <bch:tm> <bch:tm>     <dbl> <bch:byt>    <dbl>
## 1 runif        8.81ms    9.2ms      85.6    24.3MB     7.96
## 2 stream       2.46ms   2.55ms     373.    148.2KB     3.99

The results of the benchmark above shows that the median run time for sequential sampling is about 3 times larger when using runif() than if we use the stream. The table also provides additional information, e.g., the total amount of memory allocated.

The last column of output from the benchmark shows the number of garbage collections per second during the benchmark. The gc refers to calls of the garbage collector, which does the automatic memory deallocation. That is, it is a function that detects memory allocated by R but no longer in use and sets it free. You can call gc() to trigger garbage collection and obtain information about memory allocated by R, but we usually let R do this automatically. Even if the amount of memory used by an algorithm is insignificant compared to the memory available, memory allocation and deallocation take time and affect the run time negatively. Implementations that use little memory rarely trigger garbage collection and are therefore often preferable.

Benchmarks are used throughout the book for measuring run time (and memory usage) of various implementations, and using bench::mark() to do so has several advantages. First, it checks by default if the results from each expression that we benchmark are equal. This is a good default since we should only compare expressions that solve the same problem. This check does, however, not make sense when simulating random numbers, and that is why the check was disabled above. Second, bench::mark() randomizes and repeats the evaluations of each expression, and the results are averages over the repeats. These averages exclude by default iterations with garbage collection (set filter_gc = FALSE to change this). This is done to better separate time used on the actual computations and time used on memory deallocation—but remember that both matter in practice.

The bench package offers a few additional tools, e.g., automatic plotting of benchmark results. For running benchmarks across a grid of parameter values, the press() function is extremely useful. The package also includes hires_time(), which returns high-resolution real time. We have used that function in the package CSwR for implementing the tracer functionality covered in the following section.

### A.3.1 Profiling

While benchmarks can be useful for comparing the overall run time of different implementations, they do not provide information about what goes on within the implementations. In particular, they do not tell us where the bottlenecks are in slow code. We need another tool for that, which is known as profiling. The R package profvis supports line profiling, which measures how much time was spent on each line of code within one or more functions during evaluation.

Running the following code will profile the implementation of the random number stream and store the result in as an interactive HTML widget. The widget can be shown either in RStudio or in the system browser.

p <- profvis::profvis(
{
runif_stream <- function(m, min = 0, max = 1) {
cache <- runif(m, min, max)
j <- 0
function() {
j <<- j + 1
if(j > m) {
cache <<- runif(m, min, max)
j <<- 1
}
cache[j]
}
}
runif_next <- runif_stream(1000)
for(i in 1:1e6) runif_next()
}
)

A screenshot of the HTML widget is shown below. From this we see that obtaining one million uniformly distributed numbers generated in batches of 1000 took about 700 ms in total, and we see how the time is distributed among the different lines of code. The actual generation of the random numbers makes up only about 10% of the total run time—the rest of the time was spent on things like incrementing the counter, j <<- j + 1, or extracting the $$j$$-th entry from the cache, cache[j].

In addition to the visual summary above, the interactive HTML widget shows the data in the form of a flame graph and there is an alternative summarized view of the profiling data. The profiling data itself is collected by profvis() via the the Rprof() function from the utils package. The main advantage of using profvis() is the way it processes and formats the data—see ?Rprof to understand how the profiler actually works.

For profvis() to connect the profiling data to lines of code it must have access to the source code. In the example above the source code of runif_stream() was passed on to profvis() within a single R expression, but it is also possible to profile the evaluation of a function without passing the entire source code of that function as part of the expression. If runif_stream() is implemented in a file, which is read into R via the source() function (with option keep.source = TRUE), then calling profvis(for(i in 1:1e6) runif_next()) will give us the same profiling data as shown above. Note that the code has to be read from the file using souce() and not copy-pasted! Note also that for the profiler to provide meaningful data, the total evaluation time has to be long enough. That is why we do a million evaluations of runif_next() in a loop instead of just a single one.

### A.3.2 Tracing

When R executes code, e.g., by evaluating a function we implemented ourselves, we would often like to peek into the interior of the evaluation and investigate what is going on. Besides curiosity there are two main reasons for why we want to do that. First, we might want to fix a bug. That is, when evaluating the function we either get an error or a warning, or the function returns a value we know or suspect is wrong. In those cases we need to debug the code to localize and fix the mistake(s). Second, we might want to track the evolution of variables defined inside the body of the function as the algorithm it implements progresses.

One pedestrian solution to the problem of peeking into a function while it is evaluated is to insert some additional code into the body of the function that can either print or store values of variables. This is, however, not a very efficient solution, and you need to remember to revert any changes you made, which can be a tedious and error-prone process.

Fortunately there are several good tools and techniques available for browsing and tracing what is going on during a function evaluation. For once, R includes debugging tools via the functions browser(), debug() and trace(), and RStudio uses these to support debugging via visual breakpoints in the code and it provides an interactive GUI session with access to the interior of a function once a breakpoint is reached. We will not cover how theses tools are used here, but they are highly recommended as much better alternatives to debugging-by-print-statements.

What we will cover in some detail is a technique for tracing what is going on during a function call, which can then be used for subsequent analysis of an algorithm’s performance. The technique will rely on the function being equipped with a single so-called callback argument, which effectively allows us to inject and evaluate code in the body of the function. In that way we can safely experiment with collecting any type of data during the function evaluation without ever touching the implementation of the function or affecting its performance when we are done tracing its behavior. We will in most cases use a tracer object, as implemented in the CSwR package, for tracing, and we will pass that object’s trace function to the callback argument of the function we want to trace.

### A.3.3 Optimization

• Dealt with throughout the book
• Mention parallel computations

### A.3.4 Rcpp

Use the mean_numeric and mean_complex examples.

Something

## A.5 Exercises

### Functions

Exercise A.1 Explain the result of evaluating the following R expression.

(0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1) > 0.3
## [1] TRUE

Exercise A.2 Write a function that takes a numeric vector x and a threshold value h as arguments and returns the vector of all values in x greater than h. Test the function on seq(0, 1, 0.1) with threshold 0.3. Have the example from Exercise A.1 in mind.

Exercise A.3 Investigate how your function from Exercise A.2 treats missing values (NA), infinite values (Inf and -Inf) and the special value “Not a Number” (NaN). Rewrite your function (if necessary) to exclude all or some of such values from x.

Hint: The functions is.na, is.nan and is.finite are useful.

### Histograms with non-equidistant breaks

The following three exercises will use a dataset consisting of measurements of infrared emissions from objects outside of our galaxy. We will focus on the variable F12, which is the total 12 micron band flux density.

infrared <- read.table("data/infrared.txt", header = TRUE)
F12 <- infrared\$F12

The purpose of this exercise is two-fold. First, you will get familiar with the data and see how different choices of visualizations using histograms can affect your interpretation of the data. Second, you will learn more about how to write functions in R and gain a better understanding of how they work.

Exercise A.4 Plot a histogram of log(F12) using the default value of the argument breaks. Experiment with alternative values of breaks.

Exercise A.5 Write your own function, called my_breaks, which takes two arguments, x (a vector) and h (a positive integer). Let h have default value 5. The function should first sort x into increasing order and then return the vector that: starts with the smallest entry in x; contains every $$h$$th unique entry from the sorted x; ends with the largest entry in x.

For example, if h = 2 and x = c(1, 3, 2, 5, 10, 11, 1, 1, 3) the function should return c(1, 3, 10, 11). To see this, first sort x, which gives the vector c(1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 10, 11), whose unique values are c(1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11). Every second unique entry is c(1, 3, 10), and then the largest entry 11 is concatenated.

Hint: The functions sort and unique can be useful.

Use your function to construct breakpoints for the histogram for different values of h, and compare with the histograms obtained in Exercise A.4.

Exercise A.6 If there are no ties in the dataset, the function above will produce breakpoints with h observations in the interval between two consecutive breakpoints (except the last two perhaps). If there are ties, the function will by construction return unique breakpoints, but there may be more than h observations in some intervals.

The intention is now to rewrite my_breaks so that if possible each interval contains h observations.

Modify the my_breaks function with this intention and so that is has the following properties:

• All breakpoints must be unique.
• The range of the breakpoints must cover the range of x.
• For two subsequent breakpoints, $$a$$ and $$b$$, there must be at least h observations in the interval $$(a,b],$$ provided h < length(x). (With the exception that for the first two breakpoints, the interval is $$[a,b].$$)

### Functions and objects

The following exercises build on having implemented a function that computes breakpoints for a histogram either as in Exercise A.5 or as in Exercise A.6.

Exercise A.7 Write a function called my_hist, which takes a single argument h and plots a histogram of log(F12). Extend the implementation so that any additional argument specified when calling my_hist is passed on to hist. Investigate and explain what happens when executing the following function calls.

my_hist()
my_hist(h = 5, freq = TRUE)
my_hist(h = 0)

Exercise A.8 Modify your my_hist function so that it returns an object of class my_histogram, which is not plotted. Write a print method for objects of this class, which prints just the number of cells.

Hint: It can be useful to know about the function cat.

How can you assign a class label to the returned object so that it is printed using your new print method, but it is still plotted as a histogram when given as argument to plot?

Exercise A.9 Write a summary method that returns a data frame with two columns containing the midpoints of the cells and the counts.

Exercise A.10 Write a new plot method for objects of class my_histogram that uses ggplot2 for plotting the histogram.

### Functions and environments

The following exercises assume that you have implemented a my_hist function as in Exercise A.7.

Exercise A.11 What happens if you remove that data and call my_hist subsequently? What is the environment of my_hist? Change it to a new environment, and assign (using the function assign) the data to a variable with an appropriate name in that environment. Once this is done, check what now happens when calling my_hist after the data is removed from the global environment.

Exercise A.12 Write a function that takes an argument x (the data) and returns a function, where the returned function takes an argument h (just as my_hist) and plots a histogram (just as my_hist). Because the return value is a function, we may refer to the function as a function factory.

What is the environment of the function created by the function factory? What is in the environment? Does it have any effect when calling the function whether the data is altered or removed from the global environment?

Exercise A.13 Evaluate the following function call:

tmp <- my_hist(10, plot = FALSE)

What is the type and class of tmp? What happens when plot(tmp, col = "red") is executed? How can you find help on what plot does with an object of this class? Specifically, how do you find the documentation for the argument col, which is not an argument of plot?